Biomass residues originating from production, harvesting, and
processing in farm areas.
Biofuels obtained as a product of energy crops and/or agricultural
Organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees,
bushes) on the outside of the growth zone (cambium) as a shell
for the woody core.
Capable of undergoing anaerobic or aerobic decomposition. Biodegradable
is understood as material capable of undergoing anaerobic or
aerobic decomposition under conditions naturally occurring in
Energy derived from biofuels.
Produced by living organisms in natural processes but not fossilised
or derived from fossil resources. The term biogenic is used
to denote CO2 -neutral material when degraded under aerobic
Material of biological origin excluding material embedded in
geological formations and transformed to fossil. Refers to the
biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from
agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances) forestry
and related industries, as well as the biodegradable fraction
of industrial and municipal waste.
(= biomass fuel) Fuel produced directly or indirectly from biomass.
The fuel may have undergone mechanical, chemical or biological
processing or conversion, or it may have had a previous use.
Biofuel refers to solid, gaseous and liquid biomass-derived
Alkaline spent liquor obtained from digesters in the production
of sulphate or soda pulp during the process of paper production.
The energy content mainly originates from the content of lignin
removed from the wood in the pulping process.
Bundled biofuel, bundle
Solid biofuel which has been bound together and where the material
has a lengthwise orientation. Bundles of energy forest trees
and logging residues, small trees, or branches and tops.
Wood chips made as a by-product of the wood processing industry,
with or without bark.
Used wood arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering
installations. Demolition wood is classi? ed as solid recovered
Energy forest trees
Woody biomass grown specifically for its fuel value in medium
to long rotation forestry.
Energy grass; fuel grass
Herbaceous energy crop, e.g. reed canary grass.
Energy plantation trees
Woody biomass grown as short rotation trees specifically for
its fuel value.
Cut and split oven-ready fuelwood used in household wood burning
appliances like stoves, fireplaces and central heating systems.
Firewood usually has a uniform length, typically in the range
of 150 mm to 500 mm.
Wood fuel produced from raw material that has not previously
been in another use. Forest fuel is taken from the forest and
processed directly for energy use. Forest fuels can be derived
from logging and thinnings.
Woody residues consisting of branches, tree tops, brushwood
and small trees not harvested or removed from logging sites
in commercial wood stands, as well as material resulting from
forest management operations.
Peat product intended for energy production. Fuel peat is a
local, indigenous, solid fuel which is used as milled peat or
sod peat as well as peat briquettes and pellets.
Fuel wood, energy wood
Wood fuel where the original composition of wood is preserved.
Wood chips made of fresh logging and thinning residues, including
branches and tops.
Dust-like wood residue formed from grinding timber and wood
Fuel wood; energy wood
Wood fuel where the original composition of wood is preserved.
Biomass from plants with a non-woody stem which die back at
the end of the growing season.
Fuel wood in the form of pieces of varying size and shape, produced
by crushing with blunt tools such as rollers, hammers, or flails.
Cut fuel wood in which most of the material has a length of
500 mm or more.
Woody biomass residues created during harvest of merchantable
timber. Logging residues include tree tops with branches, and
they can be salvaged fresh or after seasoning.
Milled fuel peat
Fuel peat produced by milling peat from the surface of the peatland
and by drying it. Drying is normally done at the peat site by
solar energy. Milled fuel peat is non-homogeneous in particle
size and contains mainly pulverous peat as well as peat particles
of various sizes. In addition to peat material, milled peat
may also contain limited amounts of non-decomposed or poorly
decomposed coarse plant parts (bog wood, shrubs, sheathed hare’s-tail
cotton grass, etc.) as well as limited amounts of impurities.
Particle board residues
Residues from particle board, which is a panel product produced
by densifying small particles of wood or similar lignocellulosic
materials while simultaneously bonding with an adhesive.
Peat is decomposed material which has accumulated in waterlogged
conditions. A substantial proportion consists of dead organic,
plant-based matter. It is a slowly renewable natural resource
for which there are many uses, particularly in energy and horticulture.
Its carbon content and calorific value, particularly those of
highly decomposed peat, make peat suitable for use in energy.
Also the cellular structure, low pH and low nutrient status,
particularly those of slightly decomposed sphagnum peat, make
peat suitable for use in horticultural growing media.
Woody biomass residues formed in plywood industry.
Fuel in the form of short cylindrical or spherical units. Pellets
are usually 8–12 mm in diameter and 10–30 mm in
length, with moisture content of less than 10%. Pellets are
usually produced from woody, herbaceous and fruit biomass or
Liquid biofuel which is produced in fast pyrolysis by heating
wood (moisture content less than 10%) up to 500 – 600
oC for a very short time. The organic particles are transformed
into gas, which is then converted to a liquid (oil). In general,
the bio-oil yield is about 70 w-%.
Recovered construction wood
Used wood arising from construction of buildings or from civil
RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel)
Fuel produced from unsorted municipal waste with a mechanical
Recycled wood fuels
Recycled wood fuels include post-society wood fuels, such as
demolition wood, wood casings and other waste wood.
Biofuel that has been treated mechanically or chemically to homogenise
its properties, e.g. pellets, briquettes and pyrolysis oil.
Renewable energy sources (RES)
Refers to renewable non-fossil sources (wind, solar, geothermal,
wave, tidal, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment
plant gas and biogas). In Finland peat is classified as a slowly
renewable biomass fuel.
Fine particles created when sawing wood. Most of the material
has a typical particle length of 1 to 5 mm.
Fuel peat produced by extracting peat from the peatland, by processing
it mechanically to sods (e.g. cylindrical, wave-like). The sods
are dried out by solar energy, mainly at the peat site. Peat sods
are fairly homogeneous in diameter or shape, while the length
of the sods may vary. Sod peat also contains variable amounts
of fines formed in the production and treatment stages, as well
as coarse particles and limited
amounts of impurities.
Solid recovered fuel (SRF), recovered fuel (REF)
Solid fuel which is prepared from non-hazardous waste to be utilised
for energy recovery in incineration or co¬incineration plants,
and which meets the classification and specification requirements
laid down in CEN/TS 15359. “Prepared” here means processed,
homogenised and up-graded to a quality that can be traded amongst
producers and users.
Part of the tree stem below the felling cut.
Chipped woody biomass in the form of pieces with a de?ned particle
size produced by mechanical treatment with sharp tools, such as
knives. Wood chips have a subrectangular shape with a typical
length of 5 to 50 mm and a low thickness compared to other dimensions.
Wood fuels, wood based fuels, wood-derived biofuels
All types of biofuels originating directly or indirectly from
Wood processing industry residues
Woody biomass residues originating from the wood processing and
the pulp and paper industry, e.g. bark, cork residues, cross-cut
ends, edgings, fibre board residues, grinding dust, particle board
residues, plywood residues, saw dust, slabs, and wood shavings.
Wood shavings; cutter shavings
Shavings from woody biomass created when planning wood.
Biomass from trees, bushes and shrubs. Forest wood, wood processing
industry residues, fibre board residues, particle board residues,
plywood residues, and used wood are woody biomass.
Wood substances or objects which have performed their intended
The terminology is based on European technical specification CEN/TS
14588 for solid biofuels, RES-E directive 2001/77/EC, Nordtest
NT ENV 009 - Fuel Peat guidelines, European technical specification
CEN/TS 15357 for recovered fuels and “Wise use of mires
The terms for solid biofuels are unified in the European standard
CEN/TS 14588. FAO, ASTM, and national standardisation institutes
have also published terminology for biomass fuels.